Morbimortalidad cardiopulmonar en pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico

Autores/as

  • Alicia Aquino Valdovinos
  • María Isabel Acosta Colmán
  • Osmar Antonio Centurión
  • Gabriela Ávila Pedretti
  • Jhonatan Losanto
  • Margarita Duarte

Palabras clave:

manifestaciones cardiopulmonares, lupus eritematoso sistémico, morbilidad y mortalidad cardiopulmonar

Resumen

Los pacientes con diagnóstico de lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) presentan una elevada morbi-mortalidad asociada a las manifestaciones cardiopulmonares que se desarrollan durante la evolución de la enfermedad. En este sentido, se han descrito dos picos de incidencia de mortalidad de esta enfermedad inmunológica. El primer pico está relacionado a la actividad de la enfermedad y se observa durante los tres primeros años posteriores al diagnóstico. El segundo pico está relacionado principalmente a las complicaciones cardiopulmonares y se presenta entre los 4 y 20 años posteriores al diagnóstico. Si bien la mortalidad temprana ha disminuido gracias a un mayor conocimiento de la fisiopatología de la enfermedad y al uso de terapias inmunosupresoras, la mortalidad tardía presenta un aumento progresivo de su frecuencia a pesar del avance en el manejo terapéutico. El estudio de estas complicaciones se ha convertido en un tema de gran interés debido a su efecto negativo en el pronóstico de los pacientes que las presentan. Algunos estudios epidemiológicos sugieren que los pacientes con LES tienen un mayor riesgo cardiovascular al ser comparados con la población sana. En este sentido, se ha descrito que estos presentan un mayor riesgo de desarrollar eventos cardiovasculares (infarto agudo del miocardio, accidente cerebro vascular y enfermedad arterial periférica) en comparación con la población general. De forma asociada, se ha objetivado que la presencia de manifestaciones pleuro-pulmonares (pleuritis lúpica, neumonitis, hemorragia pulmonar, embolismo pulmonar e hipertensión pulmonar) aumenta la morbimortalidad de los pacientes con LES. El conocimiento adecuado de las complicaciones cardiopulmonares en los pacientes con diagnóstico de lupus eritematoso sistémico permitirá realizar un manejo individualizado y por lo tanto más eficaz, permitiendo disminuir la morbilidad asociada a las citadas complicaciones. El objetivo de este manuscrito es realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre las principales manifestaciones cardiopulmonares, además de analizar la morbilidad y mortalidad asociada a ellas dentro del contexto clínico de los pacientes con LES.

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2015-08-01

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Aquino Valdovinos, A., Acosta Colmán, M. I., Centurión, O. A., Ávila Pedretti, G., Losanto, J., & Duarte, M. (2015). Morbimortalidad cardiopulmonar en pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico. Memorias Del Instituto De Investigaciones En Ciencias De La Salud, 13(2). Recuperado a partir de https://revistascientificas.una.py/index.php/RIIC/article/view/1820

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