Presente y futuro de los anticuerpos recombinantes terapéuticos

Autores/as

  • Patricia Langjahr
  • Pablo Sotelo

Palabras clave:

inmunoglobulinas, anticuerpos monoclonales, proteínas recombinantes, anticuerpos terapéuticos

Resumen

Los anticuerpos constituyen un componente fundamental del sistema inmune, permitiendo el reconocimiento con alta especificidad y posterior destrucción de moléculas extrañas. Los anticuerpos monoclonales, producidos por la tecnología del hibridoma, presentan desventajas para su uso en terapia humana debido a su origen en una especie diferente. La ingeniería genética posibilitó la utilización de los anticuerpos monoclonales para terapias humanas, generando los anticuerpos recombinantes terapéuticos. Así, los anticuerpos recombinantes se han transformado en un importante grupo de fármacos; con decenas de ellos aprobados para terapia humana y cientos en desarrollo. Se utilizan con éxito como tratamiento para un amplio rango de patologías, tales como cáncer, autoinmunidad e infecciones, siendo desde hace años el biofármaco con mayores ventas. Inicialmente todos los anticuerpos recombinantes terapéuticos presentaban la estructura convencional de los anticuerpos. Sin embargo, más recientemente, se han generado nuevos diseños que no poseen las características estructurales naturales, como los anticuerpos de simple cadena y bi-específicos. Debido al desarrollo y éxito de la tecnología de anticuerpos recombinantes, se espera un aumento constante en el número de anticuerpos terapéuticos contra nuevos blancos, además de la generación de nuevas estructuras, usos y estrategias terapéuticas. En esta revisión, nos centraremos en las características estructurales y los nuevos formatos de anticuerpos, así como su aplicación clínica en el tratamiento de diversas patologías. Además analizaremos los nuevos formatos de anticuerpos que se encuentran en el mercado y la aparición de los anticuerpos biosimilares.

Citas

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Publicado

2021-10-01

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Langjahr, P., & Sotelo, P. (2021). Presente y futuro de los anticuerpos recombinantes terapéuticos. Memorias Del Instituto De Investigaciones En Ciencias De La Salud, 14(2). Recuperado a partir de https://revistascientificas.una.py/index.php/RIIC/article/view/1866

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