La búsqueda de resistencia al tizón tardío en papas silvestres

Autores/as

  • Guillermo Andrés Enciso Maldonado Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Instituto de Horticultura. Carretera México-Texcoco, Chapingo, Estado de México.
  • Héctor Lozoya Saldaña Instituto de Horticultura, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Carretera México-Texcoco Km 38.5, Chapingo, Estado de México. C. P. 56230, Mexico
  • Gabriela Díaz García Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Departamento de Parasitología Agrícola. Carretera México-Texcoco, Chapingo, Estado de México
  • Alfredo López Salazar Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Departamento de Parasitología Agrícola. Carretera México-Texcoco, Chapingo, Estado de México

Palabras clave:

Phytophthora infestas, Solanum tuberosum, recursos fitogenéticos

Resumen

La papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) es la hortaliza más cultivada en el mundo. El principal factor limitante a nivel mundial es el tizón tardío (Phytophthora infestans), causando hasta pérdidas totales de producción. Una parte importante del mejoramiento genético de la papa se centra en la obtención de cultivares resistentes a esta enfermedad. Sin embargo, el patógeno es capaz de producir descendencias a partir de la reproducción sexual, generando nuevas cepas más virulentas, capaces de vencer la resistencia genética en nuevos cultivares. Por mucho tiempo, los genes de resistencia vertical de Solanum demissum han sido utilizados para la obtención de variedades resistentes, pero con éxito limitado debido a que son raza-específicos y porque el patógeno sobrepasa la inmunidad en poco tiempo. Actualmente existe un interés en el aprovechamiento de genes de resistencia horizontal o cuantitativa de diversas especies silvestres de Solanum, las cuales son difíciles de introducir a través de cruzamientos debido a la incompatibilidad de ploidías y al número de balance del endospermo (NBE). No obstante, algunas técnicas como la hibridación somática, la minería de alelos y el mejoramiento asistido por marcadores genéticos han permitido vencer estas barreras. De aquí la importancia de explorar e identificar nuevos genes de resistencia en las papas silvestres.

Citas

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2021-12-23

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Enciso Maldonado, G. A., Lozoya Saldaña, H., Díaz García, G., & López Salazar, A. (2021). La búsqueda de resistencia al tizón tardío en papas silvestres. Investigaciones Y Estudios - UNA, 12(2), 36–47. Recuperado a partir de https://revistascientificas.una.py/index.php/rdgic/article/view/2034

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