Conceptos actuales sobre la clasificación clínica y alteraciones electrofisiológicas en la disfunción del nódulo sinusal

José F. Alderete, Osmar Antonio Centurión

Resumen


La disfunción del nódulo sinusal (DNS) es generalmente secundaria a la senescencia del nodo sinusal y del miocardio auricular circundante. Los pacientes con este trastorno son a menudo añosos y en general presentan otras comorbilidades. Los pacientes a menudo buscan atención médica con síntomas de aturdimiento, pre-síncope, síncope y, en pacientes con periodos alternantes de bradicardia y taquicardia, palpitaciones u otros síntomas asociados con una frecuencia cardíaca rápida. Debido a que los síntomas pueden ser de naturaleza variable, inespecíficos y frecuentemente transitorios, a veces puede ser difícil establecer esta relación síntoma-alteración electrocardiográfica. Los hallazgos electrocardiográficos típicos son uno o más episodios de bradicardia sinusal extrema (Rubenstein Tipo I), o pausas sinusales, paro y bloqueo de salida sinoatrial (Rubenstein Tipo II), o episodios de bradicardia y/o pausas alternantes con taquiarritmias auriculares (Rubenstein Tipo III). Las investigaciones basadas en el registro de electrogramas locales auriculares anormalmente prolongados y fraccionados durante el ritmo sinusal y su distribución característica en la aurícula derecha de pacientes con DNS han aportado un conocimiento importante sobre las propiedades electrofisiológicas de la aurícula patológica. El electrograma auricular anormal traduce una conducción auricular irregular, caracterizada por una actividad eléctrica local no homogénea, relacionada con una conducción anisotrópica, no uniforme y retardada a través de un miocardio auricular patológico, en el que se pueden originar arritmias por reentrada. La detección de electrogramas auriculares anormales en la DNS identifica a un grupo de pacientes con vulnerabilidad auricular aumentada y con una incidencia significativamente mayor de episodios espontáneos o inducidos de fibrilación auricular.

Palabras clave


disfunción del nódulo sinusal; síndrome de enfermedad sinusal; fibrilación auricular paroxística; vulnerabilidad auricular; electrogramas auriculares endocárdicos.

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Referencias


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