Salud bucodental relacionada a la calidad de vida: revisión crítica de los instrumentos de medición

Cristina Raquel Caballero García, José Francisco Flores Alatorre, Luz Arenas Monreal

Resumen


Un creciente reconocimiento de la importancia de la calidad de vida en odontología ha llevado al desarrollo de varios instrumentos para medir su relación con la salud bucodental. Saber por qué y de qué manera la salud bucodental afecta la calidad de vida de las personas es relevante para la práctica, la investigación y la enseñanza en odontología. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica fue actualizar los conocimientos sobre las características generales y sicométricas de los instrumentos para medir la calidad de vida relacionada a la salud bucodental que surgieron posterior a la publicación en 1997 de los resultados de la conferencia "Measuring oral health and quality of life”. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica para identificar publicaciones aparecidas de enero de 1998 a junio del 2011, utilizando las bases de datos MEDLINE y GOOGLE académico. Se establecieron criterios específicos, basados en marcos de referencia internacionales, para la inclusión, la recolección y el análisis de las propiedades generales y sicométricas de los instrumentos. Se identificaron 233 artículos de los cuales 10 cumplían con todos los criterios predeterminados y finalmente quedaron 9 porque uno de ellos se encontraba repetido. Todas las publicaciones fueron encontradas en lengua inglesa. Todos los instrumentos fueron multidimensionales, presentaron propiedades sicométricas adecuadas y la mayoría de ellos tomó como base a otros instrumentos de medición previos y a la clasificación de deficiencias y discapacidades. Se concluye que es necesario avanzar en la medición de salud bucodental relacionada a la calidad de vida para el contexto y las características de la población de América Latina ya que sólo se cuenta con publicaciones anglosajonas.


Palabras clave


salud bucodental; calidad de vida; instrumentos de medición.

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Mem. Inst. Investig. Cienc. Salud