Factores de riesgo y cardiopatías prevalentes en mujeres internadas en la división de medicina cardiovascular del Hospital de Clínicas

Laura García Bello, Cristina Cáceres, Nancy Gómez, María Paniagua, Oscar Lovera, Osmar Antonio Centurión

Resumen


La representación de las mujeres ha sido marginal en la mayoría de los ensayos clínicos o registros dedicados a las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV). Por eso, recientemente, se ha adoptado una política de estimular la inclusión de mujeres en los ensayos clínicos. En este estudio descriptivo retrospectivo y de corte transversal, nos hemos propuesto determinar la forma de presentación de las cardiopatías, describir los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares presentes en estas pacientes, determinar el número de mujeres que presentaron cardiopatía isquémica, y establecer el tratamiento recibido por las mujeres que presentaron cardiopatía isquémica en mujeres internadas en la División de Medicina Cardiovascular del Hospital de Clínicas. El estudio incluyó un total de 250 pacientes, de los cuales 187 (75%) correspondían al sexo masculino y 63 (25%) al sexo femenino. Las edades de las mujeres se encontraban entre 25 y 94 años (60±7,3 años). Las mujeres estudiadas presentaron: insuficiencia cardiaca 26 (41%), síndromes coronarios agudos 20 (32%), valvulopatías 8 (13%), bloqueo AV completo 7 (11%) y otros 2 (3%). De las mujeres con síndrome coronario agudo, 3 pacientes tuvieron enfermedad de 3 vasos, 1 sola tuvo coronarias normales, y 8 (40%) tenían lesiones de la arteria descendente anterior. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron el sedentarismo en la totalidad de las mujeres, la hipertensión arterial en 55 (87%), dislipidemias en 39 (62%), obesidad en 34 (54%), diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en 12 (19%) y tabaquismo en 12 pacientes (19%). La magnitud del riesgo cardiovascular de la mujer depende no solamente de la alteración de un parámetro sino también de la presencia de otros factores de riesgo, razón por la cual se requiere de un manejo multifactorial integral dentro del concepto de riesgo cardiovascular global en la mujer.


Palabras clave


Factores de riesgo cardiovascular; Mujeres hospitalizadas; Síndrome coronario agudo.

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Referencias


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